Holstein cows, the most prevalent dairy cow today, produce almost 100% A1 milk. [32] In New Zealand it is illegal to make health claims about a food product without providing scientific evidence and registering the food as a medicine, and in November 2003 the New Zealand Commerce Commission advised that A2 Corporation Ltd and its licensed a2 MILK brand producers had agreed to amend the health claims in their promotional material following a warning from the commission. According to the literature, more than 10,000 years ago, and before they were domesticated, cows produced only the A2 beta casein protein and not the A1 beta casein protein. Louise Thomas for Unlimited. [48][52], In 2014, Lion, a beverage and food company that operates in Australia and New Zealand, and is owned by Kirin, relaunched their "Pura" milk product with a new label stating: "Naturally contains A2 protein. [2], Scientists believe the difference originated as a mutation that occurred between 5000 and 10,000 years ago—as cattle were being taken north into Europe—when the proline at position 67 was replaced by histidine, with the mutation subsequently spreading widely throughout herds in the Western world through breeding. However, some 8,000 years ago a natural single-gene mutation occurred in Holsteins, resulting in production of the A1 beta casein protein in this breed. The future will tell if A2 milk is just a fad or if it will permanently have a seat at the table of the dairy industry. [2][46], Commercial development proceeded, and by 2010 some 40 million litres of milk with predominantly A2 protein were being produced by 12,000 A2-certified cows across Australia, with milk processed at four plants in Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland,[47] and yoghurt made with milk with predominantly A2 protein went on the market in Australia in April 2010. [58], In April 2007, A2 Corporation announced a deal in which the joint venture would license rights to the Original Foods Company, whose branding the milk with predominantly A2 protein product would carry, and in which the product would be sold in several midwestern states through the Hy-Vee supermarket chain under the a2 and a2 MILK brands. [13] The A1 beta-casein type is the most common type found in cow's milk in Europe (excluding France), the US, Australia and New Zealand. [25][37] A$1.27 million federal government grant awarded to the company in August as part of the Regional Partnerships Program was also cancelled.

[18] A2 Corporation also petitioned the Food Standards Australia New Zealand regulatory authority to require a health warning on ordinary milk. 30 December 2004. The mutation was passed on to many other breeds, principally because Holsteins are used to genetically improve the production of other breeds. The most common variants among Western cattle are A1, A2, and B. The strongest evidence for any possible benefit of A2 milk are the rat studies that demonstrate BCM-7, which is released during digestion of the A1 beta casein variant, causes inflammatory immune response. [25] Shortly thereafter, an Australian company called A2 Dairy Marketers licensed patent rights and the A2 trademark from A2 Corporation and started offering Australian dairy farmers a premium price for their milk, if it was shown to be pure A1 protein–free milk. 17 November 2004, Ellen Read for the New Zealand Herald. Subclinical Hypocalcemia Costs $125 Per Affected Cow. [51], Other products produced using milk with predominantly A2 protein were developed, including thickened cream, infant formula, ice cream, yogurts, and other dairy products.

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