(Dimacolor), "Naphthol pigments are actually dyes that are "laked" to form pigments.
Poorly matched strokes won’t blend in with the natural hairs and the overall impression will just look sloppy. Indian purple is carmine precipitated on a copper base (Ref. I would suggest making your own tests in the binder or brand of choice to verify fastness. (guerra paint), BWS
It is chemically very similar to carmine (NR3); Mentioned in the Bible book of Genesis (38:28) as scarlet or crimson (Ref). (Guerra), BWS
**** avoid dust, inhaling large amounts may cause silicosis. * Rated IV (poor) in watercolors by Handprint, more info on PR 9 when used in watercolors @ handprint.com Avoid dust. BWS In Pliny's time this rock, quarried in Egypt, was used extensively for architectural and ornamental purposes, and especially for the base or lower part of busts To the Italians it became known as porfido rosso anlico.
Calcining or heating at a high temperature adds a whole other layer of deeper shades to the already wide degree of shades. Gafast Pigment Red 254 - 111 (Tech Data Sheet PDF); Gafast Pigment Red 254 - 222 (Tech Data Sheet PDF); CAS 122390-98-1; 5;4 Rating of II from an old tube of Williamsburg oil paint.
Pigments are chemically porphyrin molecules, which have a metal ion at the center. Might be better in oils or Acrylic, I would suggest making your own lightfastness tests if you are interested. * The PR48:4 form of PR48 seems to be more light fast than other forms of this pigment. LBNL Pigment Database Spectral radiative properties; Making pigments: Red Ochre at webexhibits.org; CPMA 3-06-7 (4th ed. - TOR Minerals International Press release, (Ref Mayan Pigments); Common, Historic and
(Ref. Created with Sketch. Artist manuals and handbooks (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works); 6.) Various web sites (an incomplete list, in no particular order): AMIEN.org is unfortunetly gone, but the good news is the MITRA (Materials Information and Technical Resources for Artists) has taken up the cause, Handprint.com; WetCanvas.com; Blick Art Materials Artist Supply Pigment Information; Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Conservation & Art Materials Encyclopedia; Kremer Pigments; Natural Pigments; Kama Pigments; Sinopia Pigments; PCImag.com; WebExhibits.org "Pigments through the Ages Online Museum"; and along with internet forums on art and painting, web sites of paint manufacturers, paint suppliers, chemical manufacturers and pigment manufacturers; 3.)
]; Chrome Tin Pink is produced by calcining, at high temperatures, varied ratios of Calcium (II) Oxide, Tin (IV) Oxide, Silicon (IV) Oxide, and Chromium (III) Oxide creating a crystalline tin sphene. Note: these may from tests on a single formulation or pigment brand, and may not be valid for other brands or binders. They can be followed or prefixed by other properties such as raw, bright, deep, dark, medium, fine or transparent etc. 2003, p.22-23).
Minium gets its name from the Minius River in northwest Spain, where the native mineral was once mined in antiquity. This is just a partial list, for a more complete listing of Historical Pigment References see the Free Art Books Page. Making pigments: Realgar at webexhibits.org; Said to be incompatible with lead or copper pigments (Ref Natural Pigments); *exposure to sunlight may convert some pigment into Pararealgar, a yellow pigment (Ref mindat.org). Mostly calcium carbonate.
Cadmium Red Purple Light Substitute [SE.p]; BWS
8;8;7 Quinazoline derivatives as potential anticancer agents: a patent review 2007 â 2010).
I have used the ASTM rating when possible, but The ASTM has not rated all pigments, and stopped rating pigments entirely sometime in the late 90's early 2000's.
Many pigments have a range of shades and hues. Cadmium Red would be 8;8;8 with excellent light fastness in all tints). 6-7; 6; 5 Synthetic Anhydrous red iron oxide, It may consist of the additional modifiers Cr2 03, FeO, Mn203, or/and NiO in any combination. Pigments and their Chemical and Artistic Properties; A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1; A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 2, Health & Safety Bibliographic Resources and Resource Guides in Art Conservation, Health and Safety Guides and Publications, Online Health and Safety in the Arts Library, D5517-07 Standard Test Method for Determining Extractability of Metals from Art Materials, D6901-06 Standard Specification for Artists' Colored Pencils, Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint. What makes the PhiBrows SUP (SUP stands for supplemental) formulation so special is the fact that iron oxides and synthetics are mixed together to get the best performance out of them.
8 By Richard P. Pohanish, Stanley A., p.124); C.P. (Ref Color Index 4th edition); ** PR 233 may contain lead oxide as a modifier, but it is unlikely to be in most modern formulations.
** not rated by the ASTM, blue wool scale suggests excellent lightfastness. (BASF). Modern Pigment and Artist Reference Sources: Web Resources and Art Suppliers with Excellent Reference Materials: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC): National membership organization in the United States dedicated to the preservation of cultural material, establishes and upholds professional standards, promoting research and publications, educational opportunities, and fostering the exchange of knowledge among conservators, allied professionals, and the public. Brown Madder (hue) [WN.w.wp.wp(L)]; Permanent Alizarin Crimson [WN.wo.w.wp.wp(L)]; Quinacridone Burnt Orange [DR.a | DV.af | GO.a.af.ao | LQ.a | MA | WN.a]; LBNL Pigment Database Spectral radiative properties; I (ASTM for Acrylic Dispersion, NR for oil, acrylic or WC), Similar to Alizarin in chroma and transparency; but dark red brown in mass tone with orange undertone.