In reconstructing this history, therefore, it is necessary to rely mainly on sources, such as the histories of Tabari and Baladhuri, that were written in the Abbasid court at Baghdad.

It does not contain any anti-Umayyad content because it was more concerned with what the Quran and what Muhammad said and was not a history book on the Umayyads. The main highways were divided into stages of 12 miles (19 km) each and each stage had horses, donkeys or camels ready to carry the post. Obadat-Ibn-Samet who was one of the distinguished companions of the Prophet, was one day walking in Damascus. Abu-Bakr, in return, as a reward, appointed his son Yazid, brother of Mu’awiyyah, as the commander-in-chief of an army which was dispatched for a battle in the then border of Islam, Damascus. A few years later, during the reign of the second Caliph, Omar Ibn Khattab, a disastrous plague came to Syria and many people died.

According to one common view, the Umayyads transformed the caliphate from a religious institution (during the Rashidun caliphate) to a dynastic one. The battle of Ahzab (meaning parties) was the result of that plot, though Muslims fortunately won the battle and all the allied groups were scattered. [69] An army mobilized by Iraq's governor Ubayd Allah intercepted and killed Husayn outside Kufa at the Battle of Karbala. When Abbasids declared amnesty for members of the Umayyad family, eighty gathered to receive pardons, and all were massacred. This policy also boosted Muawiya's popularity and solidified Syria as his power base. Also, as conversions increased, tax revenues from non-Muslims decreased to dangerous lows. [124] Sarjun ibn Mansur was replaced by Sulayman ibn Sa'd al-Khushani, another Christian.[126]. Many Iraqis remained resistant to Umayyad rule, and to maintain order al-Hajjaj imported Syrian troops, which he housed in a new garrison town, Wasit.

The expanse of the Umayyad empire and its program of Arabization were responsible for spreading Islam and the Arabic language over a vast area. [70] The Ansar and Quraysh of Medina also took up the anti-Umayyad cause and in 683 expelled the Umayyads from the city. Umair is an indirect Quranic name for boys that means “life” and “long-lived”. After 661, a series of judges served in Egypt during the caliphates of Hisham and Walid II.

Eight people were killed in that battle from the family of Bani-Ummayah. It used to make and preserve a copy of each official document before sealing and despatching the original to its destination. [45] The decision to arbitrate fundamentally weakened Ali's political position as he was forced to negotiate with Mu'awiya on equal terms, while it drove a significant number of his supporters, who became known as the Kharijites, to revolt.

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